Hasta donde he podido leer, hay dos casos:
- El aplicante principal ya hizo su landing. En ese caso, el dependiente puede hacer su landing en cualquier momento ANTES que se le venza su visa de inmigrante
- El aplicante principal no ha hecho landing. En ese caso, no se puede. Si lo dejasen entrar (me imagino el caso de tener un pasaporte que no requiera visa), entraria como visitante temporal.
Consegui un manual de la CIC (ojo que es del 2006) que dice:
Explain in writing that all family members must travel with the
principal applicant, or follow before the expiry date on their visas.
Family members, who arrive in Canada before the principal applicant,
will not become permanent residents.
Tambien esta este boletin titulado: Regulatory Amendments: Order of Admission for Permanent Resident Applicants and their Accompanying Family Members (del 2008) que dice:
The regulatory amendments specify that accompanying family members of
Federal Skilled Workers [R85], Quebec Skilled Workers [R86],
Provincial Nominees [R87], Business Immigrants [R107], and Live-in
Caregivers [R114.1] may only be granted permanent resident status at
the same time as, or after, the principal applicant has been granted
permanent resident status. This is consistent with existing
requirements for dependents to become permanent residents of Canada in
the Family Class category.
This change means that family members of principal applicants cannot
become permanent residents before the principal applicant. Previously,
there had been situations where family members had sought to become,
and could possibly have become, permanent residents prior to the
Si entran al boletin, dice que ya expiró y que ha sido remplazado por este otro, el cual dice:
5.2. Order of admission of the applicants Accompanying family members of provincial nominee applicants may only become permanent
residents at the same time as, or after, the principal applicant has
become a permanent resident. In other words, family members of
principal applicants cannot become permanent residents before the
principal applicant (refer to R87.1). All accompanying family members
of principal applicants in the provincial nominee class, who have been
issued permanent resident visas and are seeking admission to Canada on
or after September 2, 2008, may become permanent residents only if the
principal applicant has become a permanent resident in accordance with
the regulations in effect as of September 2, 2008.
Lo extraño es que este ultimo boletin habla es de los programas provinciales, por lo que toca revisar el reglamento Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations (SOR/2002-227). Alli, tomando el caso de Quebec como ejemplo dice:
Requirements for accompanying family members
(5) A foreign national who is an accompanying family member of a
person who makes an application as a member of the Quebec skilled
worker class shall become a permanent resident if, following an
examination, it is established that (a) the person who made the
application has become a permanent resident; and (b) the foreign
national is not inadmissible.
Por lo que entiendo del literal (a), es que para que un dependiente se vuelta residente, el aplicante principal debe haber hecho ya su landing
No soy abogado ni consultor de inmigración. Respondo en base a mi propia experiencia y conocimientos (y Google!)